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Archive for the ‘Evolution’ Category

Sort of. Catchy title anyway right? Ha!

Micro-evolution is true. Macro-evolution, not so much. What’s the difference you ask? Micro-evolution is small changes that occur within a population of beings(humans, animals, plants, what-have-you). These changes are mutations, “natural selection,” or genetic drift. Micro-evolution occurs at or below the species level. Macro-evolution however, occurs above the species level. In case you don’t remember high school biology, I’ll give you a quick breakdown of the pyramid of life(I just made that up right now, cool eh?). It’s normally called the Taxonomic Rank. Here’s how it breaks down.

Domain-Domain is the highest category of organisms. There are three basic domains, that of single-celled organisms(microscopic), unicellular organisms(microscopic), and then eukarotes, organisms that have complex cell structure like plants, animals, and people.

Kingdom-Kingdom is the second highest category. Within the kingdom that plants, animals, and humans are in, there are five basic categories(some claim there are six). Plants, Animals, Fungi, Chromista(Algea), and Protozae, which are unicellular eukarotes.

Phylum-Phylum is the next category, which contains the many different types of plants, animals and such. there are approximately 36 animal phyla.

Class-Class contains all the different classifications under which we all would be. For example, Mammal is a class. Under Mammal, we have humans, dogs, cats, and bears. Under Reptile, we have lizards, alligators, and crocodiles. Under birds we have eagles, condors, and sparrows. And so on and so forth.

Order-An example of Order would be “Carnivore.”

Family-Families in biology would be different groupings of specimens within an order. For example, under the order of Carnivore, we would have family like Canidea.

Genus-A Genus is a group of related species within a family.

Species-Species is sometimes difficult to define. A species is most commonly defined as being a group of organisms that can breed fertile offspring.

So a simple demonstration of the Taxonomical Rank would go like this:
Domain-Kingdom-Phylum-Class-Order-Family-Genus-Species
Eukarotes-Animal-Chordata-Mammalia-Carnivora-Canidea-Canis Lupus-Wolf

Now, micro-evolution would be changes at the species level, in the above example, that would the wolf. Now, we know that there are different types of wolves. In the United States, we have the Gray Wolf, which is the largest member of the Canidea Family. Now, within the Canus Lupus family itself, we have several genus, within those genus, we have species, including the Gray Wolf, and following the Gray Wolf we have the Red Wolf, the Dingo, the Dog, and the New Guinea Singing Dog. There are up to 38 subspecies of the Gray Wolf throughout the world. How did there get to be so many subspecies? Well, that answer probably lies mostly in genetics. Wolves have been known to mate with coyotes, however this is very rare. This also calls into question whether or not wolves and coyotes are actually separate species. The offspring of such a union are larger than a coyote, but smaller than a wolf. Which could definitely account for variations within the Canis Lupus family such as the Red Wolf and the Dog. Because there are various species and subspecies that are capable of intermingling and creating fertile offspring, these offspring can create children that become a different subspecies. Now, within all these differences being made, there are genetic differences going on. This can result in mutations, that can create different different species that are capable of thriving in environments that others possibly couldn’t thrive in. It would also result in creating subspecies that are completely incapable of surviving in the wild, such as the Shih Tzu(I’m sure that’s not spelled right). We can look at creatures like the Great Dane, English Mastiff, the German Shepherd or Jack Russell Terrier, and see how intermingling of species, genetic mutation, and environment can create different creatures that are all from the same species. These are examples of micro-evolution.

Macro-evolution however, would be a change above the species level. Such as the evolutionary hypothesis that dinosaurs evolved into birds by slowly developing feathers. According to evolutionists, micro-evolution creates so many changes over time, that eventually one species can morph into another. In reality, there’s not any proof that macr-evolution has taken place. There’s guesses, but no real proof. It’s hypothesized that dinosaurs evolved into birds, but again, there’s no transitional fossils that have held up under serious scrutiny.

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